Logistical Atmospheres: Locating Carbon for Credit
To be presented at Supply & Command: Encoding Logistics, Labor, and the Mediation of Making
April 19-20, 2018 at the Department of Media, Culture, and Communication, New York University
Accuracy for Carbon:
Vision, Control and Cartography
To be presented at Opaque Media: A Workshop
April 6-7, 2018 at the University of California, Irvine
In 2011, following attempts to bring the long
restive region of Borneo within the national fold, Indonesia’s Ministry of
Forestry and Ministry of Environment compared maps of primary forest to
calculate areas eligible for a carbon financing scheme. The maps once laid on
top of the other showed forest boundaries that did not match, stirring
uncertainty about the future of climate finance in Indonesia. Indeed, carbon
investors, led by resource extraction companies and the World Bank, claimed
that not knowing where forests are
made estimations of available carbon difficult. Repeated accusations of
inaccuracy prompted President Joko Widodo (2014 –) to implement One Map
Policy in 2016, an integrated “super databank for all of Indonesia’s spatial
data” (World Bank 2016). By 2019, 85
thematic maps detailing data related to hazard, risk and property will be
digitized and layered on to a single base map.
Geodesists producing the base map told me how they addressed informational uncertainty regarding forest change and location – by accurate, real-time visualization of deforestation. They map forests in the present in order for forestry scientists to construct models of forests’ future states such that the difference between a scenario and the observed amount of carbon in forests is what is then sold (Mathews 2014). In effect, an accurate map today underpins a plausible carbon trade on the ground, providing information to carbon investors to calculate risk and reward from such transactions. But just how is the accuracy of a forest map known, especially one that gives rise to market action? How is it that their seamless match enabled the Indonesian government to claim accuracy crucial for the financialization of forest life? Drawing on fieldwork in Jakarta and Bandung, I propose for the unsettling of accuracy as simply a technical accomplishment and matter of correspondence, insofar as cartography is associated with the grey layers of maps.
An inquiry into the overlay technique and other mathematical theorems in mapping and modeling software
Special credits to the Graduate School of Design (GSD), Frances Loeb Library
I propose that the technique of layering cannot be examined in isolation; its form is contingent to the practice and principles of modernist aesthetics and urban planning in postwar United States. Drawing from preliminary archival and ethnographic work, I trace the ways in which the technique of layering first conceptualized by Harvard design professor and planner Jaqueline Tyrwhitt, came to outline how vision, territory and control are constituted. Before introducing thematic map overlays to the first Indonesian planning school in 1959, Tyrwhitt (1955) developed the theory of “The Moving Eye”. The Moving Eye, Tyrwhitt claims, is unique to ‘non-Western’ spatial composition with each eyeful “balanced from multiple perspectives where a constantly scanning outlook evades any central objective” (1955: 116). This and other early innovations in computer graphics and mapping software unsettle the facticity that accuracy is simply a technical matter of correspondence, insofar as cartography is associated with the grey layers of maps.
See also Chicago’s Deep Time Pamphlet ”Driving the Golden Spike” by Brian Holmes
Maps and Models
Unfolding a map with field surveyors at Temajuk, West Kalimantan, Indonesia.
We were looking for ‘forest’.
More in Spring 2018.
But just how is the accuracy of a model known,
especially one that gives rise to market action?